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  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, together with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols (on the complaints procedure and on the death penalty) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and its Optional Protocol, form the so-called International Bill of Human Rights entered into force in 1976.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights deals with such rights as freedom of movement; equality before the law; the right to a fair trial and presumption of innocence; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of opinion and expression; peaceful assembly; freedom of association; participation in public affairs and elections; and protection of minority rights. It prohibits arbitrary deprivation of life; torture, cruel or degrading treatment or punishment; slavery and forced labour; arbitrary arrest or detention; arbitrary interference with privacy; war propaganda; discrimination; and advocacy of racial or religious hatred.

The human rights that the Covenant seeks to promote and protect include:

  • the right to work in just and favourable conditions;
  • the right to social protection, to an adequate standard of living and to the highest attainable standards of physical and mental well-being;
  • the right to education and the enjoyment of benefits of cultural freedom and scientific progress.

(Source: United Nations)

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